Symptoms of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, prevention and cure

Symptoms of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, prevention and cure


The spread of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria is at its peak, hundreds of Nigerians contact HIV everyday and millions are living with HIV and AIDS. Here are the  Symptoms of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, prevention and cure.


AIDS is without doubt known to be a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV interferes with your body’s ability to fight infection and disease by destroying your immune system.

HIV is known to be a type of sexually transmitted infection (STI). It may also spread from contact with infected blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. If untreated, HIV can take years before your immune system weakens to the point that you will develop AIDS

There is definitely no cure for HIV / AIDS , but medications can significantly slow down the progression of the disease. These drugs have reduced death rates from AIDS in many developed countries and of coz Nigeria.

Symptoms of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, prevention and cure

Symptoms of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, prevention and cure

The Symptoms of HIV and AIDS vary according to the stage of infection. There is no cure for it, but certain drugs can slow it down.

Primary infection (acute HIV)

Most people with HIV develop a flu-like illness within two to four weeks of the virus entering the body. Known as primary (acute) HIV infection, this disease may last for a few weeks. Possible signs and symptoms include:

  • fever
  • headache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Skin rash
  • Sore throat and painful mouth ulcers
  • Swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck
  • diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • cough
  • night sweats

These symptoms may be so minor that you may not notice them. However, the amount of virus in your bloodstream (viral load) is very high at the same time. As a result, infection spreads during the initial infection more easily than during the next stage.

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Clinical latent infection (chronic HIV)

At this point in the infection , HIV is still present in the body and in the white blood cells. However, many people may not feel any symptoms or infection during this time.

This stage can last for many years if you don’t receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Some people develop more deadly diseases much earlier.

Accidental HIV infection

As the virus continues to multiply and destroy immune cells, cells in the body that help fight germs may develop mild infections or chronic signs and symptoms such as:

  • fever
  • fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes, often one of the first signs of HIV infection
  • diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Oral yeast infection (thrush)
  • Shingles (Herpes zoster)
  • Pneumonia
  • Exacerbation of infection, leading to HIV infection

Thanks to better antiviral treatments, most HIV patients in the United States today do not develop AIDS .

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How long does it take for HIV to turn to AIDS


If HIV is not treated , it will turn into AIDS within 8 to 10 years.

With AIDS, your immune system is severely damaged. You’re more likely to develop opportunistic infections or opportunistic cancers, which usually don’t affect people with a healthy immune system.

Signs and symptoms of some of these infections include:

  • sweating
  • chills
  • recurrent fever
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • White spots or strange lesions appearing on your tongue or inside your mouth
  • Constant, unexplained fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
  • rash or blisters

When do you visit the doctor?

If you think you may have HIV or are at risk of contracting the virus, see a doctor right away.

Reason you should visit the Doctor

AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. It can spread through sexual contact or blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.

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How does HIV infection become AIDS?


HIV destroys CD4 T cells — white blood cells that play a big role in helping your body fight disease. The fewer CD4 T cells, the weaker the immune system.

You can be infected with HIV, with few or no symptoms, for a period of years before the infection turns into AIDS . AIDS is diagnosed when the number of CD4 T cells is less than 200, or when you have a complication that determines the incidence of AIDS , such as a serious infection or cancer.

How does the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread?

HIV infection occurs only if infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions enter your body. This can happen in many ways, such as:


Infection may occur if you have vaginal, anal or oral sex with an infected partner, which introduces infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions into your body. The virus can enter the body through mouth sores or small tears that are sometimes found in the rectum or vagina during sexual activity.

Share needles.

Sharing contaminated paraphernalia used to give intravenous drugs can increase your risk of HIV infection and other infectious diseases, such as hepatitis.


In some cases, the virus may be transmitted through blood transfusion procedures. US hospitals and blood banks now check blood supply sources for HIV antibodies ; So this risk is very small.

During pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.

Infected mothers pass the virus on to their children. Mothers who test positive for HIV and undergo treatment during pregnancy can greatly reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to their children.

How is HIV not transmitted?

You cannot get HIV through normal contact. This means that you cannot catch HIV or AIDS by hugging, kissing, dancing, or shaking hands with an infected person.

HIV does not spread through air, water, or insect bites.

risk factors of HIV

Anyone of any age, race, gender, or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV / AIDS . However, you become more likely to get HIV / AIDS if:

You have unprotected sex.

Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Anal sex is more dangerous than vaginal sex. The risk of HIV infection increases if you have more than one sexual partner.

You have a sexually transmitted infection ( STI ).

Many sexually transmitted infections cause the genitals to develop open sores. These sores become pathways through which HIV enters your body.

You are injecting drugs through a vein.

People who use intravenous drugs often share the same needles and syringes. This exposes them to drops of other people’s blood.


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) weakens your immune system. This makes you more likely to get many infections and certain types of cancer.

Common infection of HIV/AIDS


Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).

This fungal infection can cause many diseases. Although completely neglected during treatment for HIV / AIDS , PCP remains the most common cause of pneumonia in HIV- infected patients in the United States.

Candidiasis (thrush).

Candidiasis is a common infection associated with HIV infection . This disease causes inflammation and a thick white coating in the mouth, tongue, esophagus, or vagina.

Tuberculosis (TB).

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection, in countries with limited resources, and is associated with HIV infection . It is a leading cause of death among people with AIDS .


The common herpes virus is transmitted in body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, semen, and breast milk. A healthy immune system inactivates the virus, and it remains dormant in the body. If your immune system is weak, the virus will resurface — causing damage to your eyes, gut, lungs or other organs.

Cryptococcal meningitis.

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Cryptococcal meningitis is a common infection of the central nervous system associated with HIV infection , caused by a fungus in the soil.


This deadly infection is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite spread primarily by cats. The parasites are excreted in the feces of infected cats, which may then spread to other animals and humans. Toxoplasmosis can cause heart disease and lead to seizures when it spreads to the brain.

Common types of cancer for HIV/AIDS


This cancer begins in the white blood cells. The most common early indication is painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin.

Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Kaposi’s sarcoma, a tumor of the walls of blood vessels, usually appears as pink, red or crimson lesions on the skin and mouth. In people with darker skin, the lesions may appear dark brown or black. Kaposi’s sarcoma may also affect internal organs, including the digestive tract and the lungs.

Other complications

Atrophic (wasting) syndrome.

Untreated HIV / AIDS can cause significant weight loss, and may be accompanied by diarrhea, extreme weakness, and fever.

Neurological complications.

HIV can cause neurological symptoms such as confusion, forgetfulness, depression, anxiety and difficulty walking. Symptoms of HIV with neurocognitive disorder can range from mild behavioral changes and impaired mental function to severe dementia, causing weakness and loss of ability to function.

Kidney disease.

HIV- associated nephropathy is an inflammation of the kidneys’ delicate filters to remove excess fluid and waste products from the blood and pass them in the urine. In most cases, it affects people with brown skin and Hispanic origin.

Liver diseases.

Liver disease is also a serious complication, especially in patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C.

protection for HIV and AIDS

There is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and there is no cure for AIDS . But you can protect yourself and other people from getting infections.

To help prevent the spread of HIV :

Prevention with treatment (TasP).

If you have HIV , taking HIV medications can keep your partner from contracting the virus. If you’re careful to keep your viral load undisclosed — the blood test shows no virus — you won’t pass the virus to anyone else. Prevention with treatment means taking your medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor and getting regular checkups.

Use post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) if you have been infected with HIV .

If you think you were exposed to the virus through sex, needles, or in the workplace, contact your doctor or go to the emergency department. Using post-exposure prophylaxis as soon as possible within the first 72 hours can greatly reduce your risk of contracting HIV . You will have to take the medicine for 28 days.

Use a new condom every time you have sex.

Use a new condom every time you have anal or vaginal sex. Women can use the female condom. If you use a lubricant, make sure it is water-based. Oily lubricants can weaken condoms and cause them to break. During oral sex, use an open, non-lubricating condom or dental dam — a medical-grade latex piece.

Consider pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Using the combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir (Truvada) and emtricitabine plus tenofovir alafenamide (Descovy) can significantly reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection in susceptible people. Pre-exposure prophylaxis can reduce the risk of contracting HIV from sex by more than 90%, and by more than 70% for injecting drugs. That’s according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Discovery has not been studied in subjects who had receptive vaginal sex.

Your doctor will prescribe these medications to prevent HIV infection if you do not already have HIV infection . You’ll need to get an HIV test before you start pre-exposure prophylaxis and then have it done every three months for as long as you’re on the medication. Your doctor will also do a kidney function test before prescribing Truvada and follow-up testing every six months.

You will have to take medicines every day.

Also, these medicines do not prevent infection with sexually transmitted diseases ; So you should still practice safe sex. If you have hepatitis B, you should be evaluated by an infectious disease or liver specialist before starting treatment.

Tell sexual partners if you have HIV .

It is important that you tell all current and former sexual partners that you have HIV . Where they will have to take the test.

Use a clean needle.

If you use needles to inject medications, make sure they’re sterile, and don’t share them. You can take advantage of needle exchange programs in your community. And consider getting help with medication use.

If you’re pregnant, get medical attention right away.

Because if you are infected with HIV , you can pass the infection to your baby. But if you receive treatment during pregnancy, you can reduce your baby’s risk.

Consider male circumcision.

There is evidence that male circumcision can help reduce the risk of HIV infection

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